Most people know that, under the Fifth Amendment, they have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions without a lawyer present. However, most people do not know how broad this right is. Defendants also have the right to remain silent in terms of their actions. They need not appear in staged lineups, pose for pictures to be used in photo lineups, or perform DUI field sobriety tests.
The FSTs are always an integral part of a DUI case. If the defendant provided a chemical sample, the FSTs serve as probable cause. If the defendant refused to provide this sample, McLeod County prosecutors normally use the FSTs as circumstantial evidence of guilt. Either way, if a Hutchinson, MN DUI lawyer undermines the FST results, it is much easier to successfully resolve these cases.
Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus
Once upon a time, many people believed the HGN was the most reliable FST. But times have changed. As a result, many McLeod County judges only allow HGN results for limited purposes.
Nystagmus, which is also called lazy eye, is involuntary pupil movements at certain viewing angles. Most patients have probably taken a “follow my finger” eye test at one time or another. Doctors determined that many of these people had nystagmus, but almost none of them were intoxicated. That’s because a childhood brain injury and a genetic abnormality are responsible for most nystagmus cases.
Furthermore, this test has environmental problems. Laboratory HGN tests are usually accurate. Roadside HGN tests are more of a question mark. These tests do not occur under controlled conditions. Hutchinson, MN DUI lawyers can often challenge test results based solely on adverse environmental factors.
Walk and Turn
In many ways, the WAT, which is also known as the heel to toe walk (HTW), might be the signature field sobriety test. Subjects must walk as straight line heel to toe forward and backward while keeping their arms at their sides. During the test, officers look for intoxication clues, such as:
- Beginning the test before the officer says “start,”
- Starting with the wrong foot,
- Not stepping heel to toe,
- Falling off the line,
- Taking the wrong number of steps,
- Using hands or arms for balance, and
- Ending the test before the officer says “stop.”
Environmental issues are even more of a problem in this test than in the HGN test. It’s very difficult to walk heel to toe on an imaginary line, yet officers often demand that suspects do this. It’s also very hard to walk a straight line in anything other than athletic shoes.
Hutchinson, MN DUI Lawyers and the One-Leg Stand
In this test, officers instruct suspects to elevate one leg about forty-five degrees, keep it there for about fifteen seconds, and stand perfectly still the entire time.
Repeating a familiar theme, environmental problems plague the one-leg stand. It is very difficult for anyone with any mobility impairment to stand on one leg for more than a second or two. Additionally, the OLS is often the last test that officers administer. That order is intentional. Since the suspect is mentally and physically tired, the suspect usually does not do as well on this test.
Nevertheless, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the OLS is a reliable indicator of intoxication. Of course, NHTSA says the same thing about the HGN test, so its opinion is shaky.
The final FST is rather unique to Minnesota. In most states, officers only administer chemical tests at the stationhouse. But in the Gopher State, officers usually administer portable Breathalyzer tests at the scene. Authorities believe this additional test gives the FST battery additional credibility with jurors. However, the opposite might be true, because portable Breathalyzers have a number of flaws.
Temperature is a good example. Portable Breathalyzers are very sensitive to temperature changes. And in Minnesota, the weather changes rapidly, especially during certain times of the year. If the gadget was not calibrated according to the current temperature, the result might be off.
To drive home flaws like this one with jurors, many Hutchinson, MN DUI lawyers partner with chemists. These professionals carry much more weight with jurors than the police technicians that prosecutors usually call to the stand.
Rely on an Experienced Attorney
Undermining the FSTs is usually the first step toward a successful resolution in these cases. For a free consultation with an experienced Hutchinson, MN DUI lawyer, contact Carlson & Jones, P.A. We routinely handle matters in McLeod County and nearby jurisdictions.